تمرین شنیداری (listening) زبان متوسط ۱ فایل ۶

تمرین شنیداری (listening) زبان متوسط ۱ فایل ۶

تمرین شنیداری (listening) زبان متوسط ۱ فایل ۶

An introduction to a lecture

 

قبل از گوش کردن به فایل صوتی، تمرین زیر را انجام دهید و لغات آن را یاد بگیرید:

تمرین های آمادگی


حالا به فایل صوتی زیر گوش دهید و تمرینات زیر را انجام دهید:

 

تمرین شماره ۱


تمرین های شماره ۲


متن فایل صوتی

Transcript

Good afternoon, everyone. Welcome to the first lecture of our new course in Positive Psychology. While some people may associate psychology with looking at what’s wrong with us, and at what problems we have, there is much more to psychology than that. Positive psychology, for example, looks at how to help people become happier.

This lecture begins with a question: what makes a happy life?

Now, I’m going to give you one possible answer. A happy life is a life in which you are completely absorbed in what you do. Now, how does this compare with what you and your partner said?

This answer comes from the work of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and the theory of flow. Csikszentmihalyi is a psychologist who has spent much of his professional life on the study of what makes people happy and how we can find happiness.

Csikszentmihalyi suggests the theory that happiness is not caused by external events or things that happen to us. Our perception of these things and how we see these events either makes us happy or sad. In other words, if we want happiness, we have to actively look for it. However, this does not mean that we should always look for happiness! Csikszentmihalyi believed that our happiest moments happen when we are in a state of flow.

The theory of flow can be summarised like this: when we are totally involved in, or focused on, what we are doing, we are in a state of flow.

Csikszentmihalyi got the inspiration for this theory when he noticed how artists worked in a studio. They completely lost track of time, they didn’t notice they were hungry or tired, and they could work for hours, even days, without stopping. Anyone I have spoken to who has experienced this state of concentration has said it’s difficult to explain. The best way to explain it is that it is like being in a river and the flow of the water carries you away.

For the rest of this lecture, I will explore this theory of flow in more detail. First we will look at Csikszentmihalyi’s life, and how it influenced his ideas. Then we will look at the conditions that go with a state of flow. What creates flow, exactly? Finally, we will look at activities that can help us achieve flow in our everyday lives. Will this course make you happy for life? Well, maybe. Maybe.

Right, let’s get started. If you look at the next slide …

حالا شما برایمان به انگلیسی بگویید:

Have you ever been in a ‘state of flow’ while doing an activity?

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